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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section C】
试题内容
    Most episodes of absent-mindedness—forgetting where you left something or wondering why you just entered a room—are caused by a simple lack of attention, says Schacter. "You’re supposed to remember something, but you haven’t encoded it deeply."
  Encoding, Schacter explains, is a special way of paying attention to an event that has a major impact on recalling it later. Failure to encode properly can create annoying situations. If you put your mobile phone in a pocket, for example, and don’t pay attention to what you did because you’re involved in a conversation, you’ 11 probably forget that the phone is in the jacket now hanging in your wardrobe (衣柜). "Your memory itself isn’t failing you," says Schacter. "Rather, you didn’t give your memory system the information it needed."
  Lack of interest can also lead to absent-mindedness. "A man who can recite sports statistics from 30 years ago," says Zelinski, "may not remember to drop a letter in the mailbox." Women have slightly better memories than men, possibly because they pay more attention to their environment, and memory relies on just that.
  Visual cues can help prevent absent-mindedness, says Schacter. "But be sure the cue is clear and available," he cautions. If you want to remember to take a medication (药物) with lunch, put the pill bottle on the kitchen table—don’t leave it in the medicine chest and write yourself a note that you keep in a pocket.
  Another common episode of absent-mindedness, walking into a room and wondering why you’ re there. Most likely, you were thinking about something else. "Everyone does this from time to time," says Zelinski. The best thing to do is to return to where you were before entering the room, and you’ll likely remember.
1.[单选题]Why does the author think that encoding properly is very important?
  • A.It helps us understand our memory system better
  • B.It enables us to recall something from our memory.
  • C.It expands our memory capacity considerably.
  • D.It slows down the process of losing our memory.
  • 解题思路:细节题。第二段首句,Encoding…is a special way of paying attention to an eventthat has a major impact on recalling it later. 编码是对某件事作出注意,而这种注意是对后来回忆该事件有巨大影响的一种特定的方法,这与A项的有助于更好地理解记忆系统不符,故A不是答案。B项说,适当编码可使我们从记忆里回忆事件,与上面的句意相符,故B为答案。
2.[单选题]What is the passage mainly about?
  • A.The process of gradual memory loss.
  • B.The causes of absent-mindedness.
  • C.The impact of the environment on memory.
  • D.A way of encoding and recalling.
  • 解题思路:主旨题。本文分析了走神或心不在焉的原因,从编码有助于回忆,和编码不适当可能产生混乱,到注意事件发生的环境对记忆的重要影响,并举例说明了因为妇女对环境给予更多的注意,所以比男子的记忆力要好,说明事件发生的环境对记忆的重要性。但环境的提示作用必须是清晰和能看到的。再清晰的环境,眼睛看不到,也没用,事情发生的环境对记忆起着重要作用,而走神的根本原因,一是没注意编码,二是没注意事情发生的环境,所以本文的中心思想是人忘事或走神的根本原因。B项说主要阐述了走神的原因,故B为答案。
3.[单选题]What do we learn from the last paragraph?
  • A.If we focus our attention on the thing, we might forget another.
  • B.Memory depends to a certain extent on the environment.
  • C.Repetition helps improve our memory.
  • D.It we keep forgetting things, we’d better return to where we were.
  • 解题思路:段落主旨题。你在走进某一房间时,脑子里想着别的事,所以反而把进屋要干什么事给忘记了,这与A项相符。与原文为同义转述。
4.[单选题]One possible reason why women have better memories than men is that_____.
  • A.they have a wider range of interests
  • B.they are more reliant on the environment
  • C.they have an unusual power of focusing their attention
  • D.they are more interested in what’s happening around them
  • 解题思路:细节题。第三段末说,妇女比男人的记忆力要好一些,原因是妇女对环境给予更多的注意,这与D项的“她们对事情发生的环境更感兴趣”,属同义转述。
5.[单选题]A note in the pocket can hardly serve as a reminder because _____.
  • A.it will easily get lost
  • B.it’s not clear enough for you to read
  • C.it’s out of your sight
  • D.it might get mixed up with other things
  • 解题思路:推论题。第四段首句Visual cause can help prevent absent-mindedness...”but be sure the cue is clear and available.”作为提醒作用的字条放在口袋里,与这句话就不符了,既不清晰也得不到,看不到,怎么能起提醒的作用呢?因此应选C项。
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  • 参考答案:B,B,A,D,C
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